IBM PC and Clones by Govindarajulu: A Comprehensive Guide to Hardware and Maintenance
If you are looking for a book that covers the architecture, hardware organization, circuit design and maintenance of the IBM PC series and its clones, then you should check out IBM PC and Clones by Govindarajulu. This book is a thorough and authoritative reference that provides detailed coverage of hardware circuits, software concepts and interfaces, test equipments and diagnostic aids. It also includes complete hardware design at the systems and components level of an IBM PC and its clones.
What is IBM PC and Clones?
The IBM PC, or personal computer, was introduced in 1981 as a low-cost, easy-to-use machine that could run various software applications. It was based on the Intel 8088 microprocessor and used the MS-DOS operating system. The IBM PC became a huge success and spawned many compatible computers that were known as clones. These clones were made by different manufacturers who used the same or similar hardware and software specifications as the IBM PC. Some of the popular clone brands were Compaq, Dell, HP, Toshiba, Acer and Lenovo.
Why is IBM PC and Clones by Govindarajulu important?
IBM PC and Clones by Govindarajulu is important because it helps you understand the inner workings of the IBM PC and its clones. It explains the principles and techniques of hardware design and troubleshooting in a clear and systematic way. It also gives you practical tips and tricks on how to maintain and repair your computer. Whether you are a student, a professional or a hobbyist, you will find this book useful and informative.
What are the main topics covered in IBM PC and Clones by Govindarajulu?
IBM PC and Clones by Govindarajulu covers a wide range of topics related to the hardware and maintenance of the IBM PC and its clones. Some of the main topics are:
The evolution and history of the IBM PC and its clones
The basic concepts of microprocessors, memory, buses, input/output devices and power supply
The architecture and organization of the Intel 8088/8086/80286/80386/80486/Pentium microprocessors
The design and operation of the motherboard, keyboard, monitor, floppy disk drive, hard disk drive, CD-ROM drive, printer, mouse and modem
The software aspects of BIOS, DOS, Windows, device drivers and application programs
The test equipments and diagnostic aids such as multimeter, oscilloscope, logic analyzer, POST card, debug card and software tools
The troubleshooting techniques for common hardware problems such as no display, no booting, no sound, keyboard error, disk error, printer error and mouse error
The preventive maintenance procedures for cleaning, lubricating, aligning and replacing parts
How to get IBM PC and Clones by Govindarajulu PDF?
If you are interested in reading IBM PC and Clones by Govindarajulu, you might be wondering how to get the PDF version of the book. There are several ways to do that:
You can buy the paperback edition of the book from Amazon or other online stores and scan it yourself using a scanner or a smartphone app.
You can search for the PDF version of the book on the internet using a search engine like Google or Bing. However, be careful of the sources and the quality of the PDF files. Some of them might be illegal, incomplete, corrupted or infected with malware.
You can borrow the book from a library or a friend and use a PDF converter software or an online service to convert it to PDF format.
You can contact the author or the publisher of the book and request them to provide you with a PDF copy of the book. However, this might not be possible or feasible in some cases.
Whichever method you choose, make sure you respect the intellectual property rights of the author and the publisher and do not distribute or share the PDF file without their permission.
What are the software aspects of BIOS, DOS, Windows, device drivers and application programs?
BIOS, DOS, Windows, device drivers and application programs are some of the software components that work together to make a computer function. Each of them has a specific role and function in the system. Here is a brief overview of each of them:
BIOS: BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output System. It is a firmware program that is embedded on a chip on the motherboard. It is responsible for initializing the hardware components and loading the operating system (OS) from the boot device. It also provides a low-level interface between the OS and the hardware devices.
DOS: DOS stands for Disk Operating System. It is an old operating system that was popular in the 1980s and 1990s. It was based on a command-line interface (CLI) that allowed users to type commands to perform tasks. It was mainly used to run application programs that were written for DOS.
Windows: Windows is a modern operating system that is widely used today. It is based on a graphical user interface (GUI) that allows users to interact with icons, menus, windows and other graphical elements. It supports multitasking, networking, security and various types of hardware devices. It also runs application programs that are written for Windows.
Device drivers: Device drivers are software programs that manage the communication and data flow between the OS and the hardware devices. They provide a software interface to the hardware devices that allows the OS and other applications to access their functionalities. They are usually specific to a type of device and an OS.
Application programs: Application programs are software programs that perform specific tasks for users. They can be categorized into various types such as word processors, spreadsheets, browsers, games, etc. They run on top of the OS and use the device drivers to interact with the hardware devices.
What is the evolution and history of the IBM PC and its clones?
The IBM PC and its clones have a long and fascinating history that spans over four decades. They have revolutionized the computing industry and changed the world in many ways. Here is a brief overview of their evolution and history:
The birth of the IBM PC: The IBM PC was born in 1981 as a response to the growing popularity of personal computers such as the Apple II and the Commodore PET. IBM wanted to create a low-cost, easy-to-use machine that could run various software applications for business and personal use. It was based on the Intel 8088 microprocessor and used the MS-DOS operating system developed by Microsoft. It had a standard configuration of 16KB of RAM, a 160KB floppy disk drive, a monochrome display and a keyboard. It cost $1,565.
The rise of the clones: The IBM PC was a huge success and spawned many compatible computers that were known as clones. These clones were made by different manufacturers who used the same or similar hardware and software specifications as the IBM PC. Some of the popular clone brands were Compaq, Dell, HP, Toshiba, Acer and Lenovo. The first clone came from Columbia Data Products with 1982’s MPC 1600, but 1983 saw the landmark Compaq Portable, the first computer to be almost fully IBM compatible. The Compaq Portable made waves as the first proper IBM-compatible.
The introduction of the 386: Intel had recently released its 32-bit 80386 CPU, but unfortunately for IBM, Compaq beat it to market with a 386 machine boasting 1MB of RAM and MS-DOS 3.1 in 1986. This was two to five times faster than a 286, with a base price of $6,500. Compaq’s machines were the very top of the line, and would steal IBM’s title of business leader. IBM fought back with 1987’s Personal System/2 (PS/2), finally releasing a 386 to market; the most powerful model sported a 20MHz CPU, 2MB of RAM and a 115MB hard disk.
The decline of IBM: Despite the incredible advances, IBM continued to lose ground to the clones. Although the PS/2 line sold well for a time, IBM’s machines were still too expensive for the general public. As the ’80s progressed, the name ‘PC’ started losing its association with IBM, and people started referring instead to ‘IBM-compatibles’. IBM also made some strategic mistakes such as introducing its own proprietary Micro Channel Architecture (MCA) bus that was incompatible with existing expansion cards and peripherals. IBM also failed to embrace Windows as the dominant graphical user interface (GUI) for PCs.
The rise of Windows: Microsoft had been developing Windows since 1983 as an extension of MS-DOS that provided a GUI for PCs. However, it was not until Windows 3.0 in 1990 that Windows became a serious competitor to other GUIs such as Apple’s Mac OS and Commodore’s Amiga OS. Windows 3.0 offered improved graphics, memory management, multitasking and compatibility with existing DOS applications and hardware devices. It also supported VGA graphics that allowed for higher resolutions and more colors than before. Windows 3.0 sold over 10 million copies in two years.
The dominance of Intel and Microsoft: The success of Windows 3.0 paved the way for Windows 95 in 1995, which was a major overhaul of the OS that introduced features such as long file names, plug-and-play support, built-in networking and internet capabilities, and a new Start menu and taskbar. Windows 95 also marked the end of MS-DOS as a separate product, as it was integrated into Windows as a subsystem. Windows 95 also boosted the sales of Intel’s Pentium processors that offered faster performance and multimedia capabilities than previous generations. Together, Intel and Microsoft formed a powerful alliance that dominated the PC market for years to come.
The evolution of PCs: Since then, PCs have evolved in many ways to meet the changing needs and demands of users. They have become smaller, lighter, faster, cheaper and more powerful than ever before. They have also diversified into various form factors such as desktops, laptops, tablets, netbooks, ultrabooks, all-in-ones, convertibles and hybrids. They have also adopted new technologies such as touchscreens, solid-state drives (SSDs), wireless connectivity, cloud computing and virtual reality (VR). They have also expanded their applications beyond business and personal use to areas such as gaming, education, entertainment and creativity.
The IBM PC and its clones have a rich and remarkable history that spans over four decades. They have revolutionized the computing industry and changed the world in many ways. They have gone through many stages of evolution and innovation, from the humble beginnings of the IBM PC in 1981 to the diverse and powerful PCs of today. They have also faced many challenges and competitions, from the rise of the clones in the 1980s to the dominance of Intel and Microsoft in the 1990s and beyond. They have also adapted to the changing needs and demands of users, from business and personal use to gaming, education, entertainment and creativity. The IBM PC and its clones are truly the pioneers and icons of personal computing. 4aad9cdaf3